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Poisonous Mushrooms

Here is a list of poisonous mushrooms, of which the lethally poisonous mushrooms are listed first. Anyone gathering mushrooms to cook and eat needs to be able to identify at least the deadly poisonous mushrooms. Do not under any circumstances taste or eat of any of these mushrooms.

Click on the pictures to enlarge them.

Amanita cokeri   (Coker's amanita)
Family
Amanitaceae
Location
North America
Dimensions
Cap 7–15 cm diameter, stem 10–20 cm tall * 1–2 cm diameter
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Amanita cokeri, also known as Coker's amanita and solitary lepidella, is a medium to large agaric with a white cap and a shiny surface that is sticky when wet. The mushroom grows solitary or in small groups in woods in summer.

Cap white in colour, convex, then flat, with large white to pale brownish pyramidal warts over center. The warts are smaller and gradually become more cottony toward the margin. Gills crowded, free or narrowly attached to the stem, broad and white. Stem white, solid and tapers slightly to the top. It is smooth to shaggy in texture. The mushroom ha as a ring that is thick and often double-edged, the underside being tissuelike.

Similar species There are over 40 white Amanita species, most of which have white warts.

Amanita cokeri on Wikipedia.
Amanita cokeri on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Amanita muscaria   (Fly Amanita)
Family
Amanitaceae
Location
North America, Europe, Asia
Dimensions
Cap 8-10 cm diameter; stem 8-18 cm tall * 1-2 cm diameter
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a medium to large, fleshy agaric, with a red cap, white patches, white gills, a ring, and a bulbous base. It grows scattered or in groups on poor and sandy soils and the fruiting bodies emerge from the soil looking like white eggs. The mushroom is poisonous and a fatal dose has been calculated as 15 caps.

Cap first round to hemispherical, and finally to plate-like and flat in mature specimens, often with a low, shallow depression on disk when fully expanded. Surface shiny; deep scarlet, fading to orange-red or orange-yellow in older specimens. Gills white, free or barely touching the stem, crowded. Stem white, robust, and has a slightly brittle, fibrous texture. At the base is a bulb that bears universal veil remnants in the form of two to four distinct rings or ruffs. Between the basal universal veil, remnants and gills are remnants of the partial veil (which covers the gills during development) in the form of a white ring. It can be quite wide and flaccid with age.

Similar species include Amanita caesarea and Amanita jacksonii. The white spots sometimes wash away during heavy rain and the mushrooms then may appear to be these species.

Amanita muscaria on the First Nature Web site.
Amanita muscaria var. flavivolvata on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Amanita pantherina   (Panther Amanita)
Family
Amanitaceae
Location
North America, Europe, Western Asia
Dimensions
Cap 5-10 cm diameter, stem 8-12 cm tall * 1-1.5 cm diameter
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Amanita pantherina, also known as the Panther cap or Panther amanita, is a medium to large fleshy agaric with brownish cap, pure white patches, white stem, ring, bulbous base with distinct margin. It grows solitary or in small groups on soil under conifers or in mixed hardwood-conifer forests.

Cap shiny brown or grey-brown with a very finely striate margin, initially domed, later flatten, with densely distributed warts that are pure white to sordid cream, minutely verruculose and easily removable. Gills free, close to crowded, white becoming greyish, truncate. Stem subcylindrical, somewhat narrowing upward, white, becoming slightly tannish in age, stuffed then hollow, finely floccose becoming smooth above the white ring that is initially quite chunky but often becomes thin and floppy in more mature specimens, sometimes with a toothed edge.

Amanita pantherina on the First Nature Web site.
Amanita pantherina on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Amanita porphyria   (Grey veiled amanita)
Family
Amanitaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 4-10 cm diameter; stem 5-12 cm tall * 1-1.5 cm diameter
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Amanita porphyria, also knows as Grey veiled amanita, is a medium to large, fleshy agaric that has a greyish brown cap, sometimes with grey patches, white gills, ring and a broad, abrupt bulb at the base. The mushroom grows scattered on the ground under conifers and less commonly in mixed conifer-hardwood forests.

Cap Hemispherical when young, then convex and finally flattening, greyish brown to brown in colour, usually smooth, sometimes with grey patches. Gills soft, crowded, white and free from the stem. Flesh is white with a smell of radish. Stem thick, smooth, white or pale yellow and has a grey to black ring. Has also a basal bulb.

Similar species Amanita porphyria can easily be confused with much more poisonous species such as the Panther cap (Amanita pantherina).

Amanita porphyria on the First Nature Web site.
Amanita porphyria on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Amanita regalis   (Royal Fly Agaric)
Family
Amanitaceae
Location
Europe
Dimensions
Cap 5-10 cm diameter, stem 6-12 cm tall * 1.5-2.5 cm thick
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Amanita regalis, also known as Royal Fly Agaric, is a medium to large, brown, fleshy agaric with cap patches, white gills, ring, basal bulb. The mushroom grows solitary or scattered on soil in mixed woods.

Cap brown; at first convex, becoming expanded-convex or flattened, smooth and slightly greasy in damp conditions, decorated with delicate, non-persistent, whitish or whitish grey velar patches. Flesh white firm and medium. Gills are crowded close together, free from attachment to the stem, and white with a creamy yellow tinge. Stem white, smooth, lined above the ring. Ring large white and fairly firm, superior.

Amanita regalis on the www.first-nature.com web site.
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Amanita rubescens   (Blushing Amanita)
Family
Amanitaceae
Location
North America, Europe
Dimensions
Cap 6-15 cm diameter, stem 6-15 cm tall * 1-2.5 cm thick
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Amanita rubescens, also know as Blushing Amanita, is a large, rosy-brown, fleshy agaric that has cap patches, white gills, a bulbous base, and a ring on the stem. A significant characteristic is that it blushes when bruised or cut, and is since also called the blusher. It grows solitary or scattered on soil in woods generally.

Cap pinkish-brown with grey to pink patches on the surface. At first, it is sub-spherical, becoming convex and finally flattened. The flesh is moderately firm and white, becoming brownish pink were cut or damaged. Gills crowded, soft, white to off-white, free from the stem, with pink tinges appearing on damaged areas. Spores are white. Stem downy, grey, white, or pink, bears a prominent pendent ring with furrows on its upper surface. The base is swollen and girdled.

Note The toxic compounds in the mushroom are destroyed if Amanita rubescens is cooked thoroughly, but as with all other species in the Amanita genus, it should not be eaten.

Amanita rubescens on the First Nature Web site.
Amanita rubescens on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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Chlorophyllum molybdites   (False parasol)
Family
Agaricaceae
Location
North America and Europe
Dimensions
Cap 8-30 cm diameter; stem 5-30 cm tall * 1-1.5 cm diameter
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Chlorophyllum molybdites, also known as False parasol, is a large agaric with a white hat that has coarse brownish scales. The mushroom is poisonous and is commonly confused with the shaggy parasol or shaggy mane, and is the most commonly consumed poisonous mushroom in North America.

Cap convex to bell-shaped, with tin incurved margin, expanding to broadly convex. The surface is first covered by a thin layer of shiny, pale pinkish buff volva tissue that soon cracks into scales, exposing the white cap surface. Gills close, broad, free and remote from the stem, pale yellowish but becoming green as spores mature. Spores green coloured. Stem slender, enlarged towards the base, white and bears a double-edged ring that is white at first but becomes brown and scaly on the underside.

Similar species include Chlorophyllum rhacodes and the edible Macrolepiota procera.

Chlorophyllum molybdites on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
Identifying the Most Common Poisonous Mushroom: Chlorophyllum molybdites on the Foraged Foodie Web site.

The seventh photo is by Sylvia and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
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Clathrus ruber   (Caged stinkhorn)
Family
Phallaceae
Location
North America and Europe
Dimensions
Fruiting body 4-10 cm tall * variable diameter
Edibility
Poisonous

Description
Clathrus ruber, also know as caged stinkhorn or the basket stinkhorn is a red mushroom that develops a spherical cage-like structure. It emerges from a white or buff egg.

Fruiting Body as immature a whitish to faintly brownish egg which is 3–5 cm in diameter. As mature it is 5–18 cm high and 4–10 cm in diameter, consisting of a mesh of arms that surround semi-regular openings, creating a lattice-like structure with is orangish-red to red, fading to pinkish.

Similar species There are many Clathrus species which are mainly tropical. Some are bright red, others are white.

Clathrus ruber on the www.first-nature.com web site.
Clathrus ruber on the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
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WARNING

If you plan to collect fungi to be eaten, misidentified mushrooms can make you sick or kill you. Never eat a mushroom that you are not 100% sure is edible. Use many resources, and be skeptical of your own conclusions. Please consider that many mushrooms take years of experience to identify reliably.

The site takes no responsibility for damage caused by ingesting poisonous mushrooms. If you continue, you agree to view this website under these terms.